Consonants & Vowels

It’s a Fact — Consonants

Today, I want to give you a few facts about consonants.

  • 21 Consonants are: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z
  • Consonants never say their name (except in words like x-ray).
  • Most consonants have one sound.
  • Five consonants have more than one sound: c, g, s, x, n
  • The letter r does not say “er.” It sounds more like a barking dog – “rhhh.”
  • The letter q is ALWAYS followed by a u in English words. They make the sound “kw” as in queen.
  • The letter x makes three sounds:
    “ks” as in Box
    “gz” as in Exit
    “z” as in Xylophone
  • No English words end in the letters v or j.
  • V is always followed by e. For example: active, believe
  • -ge and -dge are used for “j” at the end of a word. For example: ridge, engage
  • Consonant blends are two or three consonants which blend together: shrill, fast, lamp
  • Digraphs are two consonants representing as single sound: shout, thimble, chest


  • Gail Timmer

    In B C Canada, we don’t say egzit for exit. The ex are pronoun we /ex/. I guess we have Canadian accents after all .

  • Leanda Gejas


    Do you mind if I share this on my Facebook page, with credit to you. I am certified in O-G and will be looking to remediate clients. I have a Facebook page under DARTS Dyslexia.

    Kind Regards Leanda Gejas

    Sent from my iPhone


  • Cindy Brown

    I think “gz” for exit is regional dialect. We don’t say exit that way. We clearly say /ex/ in exit here in the Ohio.

    • admin

      I don’t really have more information, but you can think of words that contain s as /z/ sound and begin to commit those to memory over time. One note is in the FLOSS rule — final s that says /z/ never doubles (they have a short vowel with l, f, s, but they are exceptions) — words like as, is, has, was, his. Then you have words like rose, accuse, miserable, miser. There’s really no “rule” for the s saying /z/, but being aware that it does happen is part of getting used to all of the sounds letters can say and eventually they are easier to remember.

    • admin

      Hi Linda, n also says “ng” — examples are think or sing (it’s a nasal sound more than a clipped like the words nose or thin)

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