It’s a Fact — Consonants


Today, I want to give you a few facts about consonants. 21 Consonants are: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, zConsonants never say their name (except in words like x-ray).Most consonants have one sound.Five consonants have more than one sound: c, g, s, x, nThe letter r does not say “er.” It sounds more like a barking dog – “rhhh.”The letter q is ALWAYS followed by a u in English words. They make the sound “kw” as in queen. ?The letter x makes three sounds: “ks” as in...

Always, Then, Last: REVLOC order


In my Orton Gillingham journey I’ve heard some who use the word CLOVER to teach syllable types. In the class I took, the word to remember syllable types is REVLOC. The reason for using REVLOC is that this is the order of the syllable for labeling. CLOVER may be an actual word, but REVLOC will give better guidance when trying to decode a word by remembering which syllable types overrule the next. I’ll give an example and then you can see the attached sheet for further explanation. The syllable: tur At first glance, it might seem that this is a closed syllable. But...

I’m Seeing Double – 1-1-1 Doubling Rule Explained


Continuing with Suffix Rules, the first one I will go in depth on is the 1-1-1 Doubling Rule. The grade level this rule corresponds with is 2nd through 12th. Before teaching this rule, one should know: What a suffix is That some suffixes begin with vowels and some with consonants The difference between one and two syllable words. The 1-1-1 Doubling Rule says: 1 syllable words ending in 1 consonant after 1 vowel double the final consonant before a vowel suffix. Why do we double? Because doubling keeps the vowel short. For this rule, worksheets are great, but it is better if you have plenty of...

Illustrations of Suffix Rules, An Overview


Continuing with Suffixes, today I will create an overview of suffix rules. The three suffix rules are: 1-1-1 Doubling Rule, E Drop Rule and the Y-Changing Rule. I will do an overview today, but go in depth in my next posts. 1-1-1 Doubling rule is: 1 syllable words ending in 1 consonant after 1 vowel, you double the final consonant before a vowel suffix. Why double? Because doubling the consonant after the vowel keeps the vowel short. E Drop Rule is: Words ending in e drop the e before adding a vowel suffix. Y Changing Rule is: Words ending in y change the...

The Ending Gives It Meaning – Suffixes


The English language uses affixes to root words to give new meaning by adding prefixes to the beginning and suffixes to the end of a word. It’s efficient – we don’t have to learn new words to get a new word, we just add something to the beginning or the end of a word we already know and there we have it, a new meaning. Suffixes, endings and stable endings are three words used when describing the ending added to a word to change its meaning. Those three terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably. I use suffix,...

Phonemic Awareness: Speaking of Individuality


What’s the importance of phonemic awareness and what exactly does that mean? First, phonics and phonemic awareness is not the same thing. Phonics is the understanding of the relationship of letters and sounds in WRITTEN language. Phonemic awareness is understanding the sounds of language working together in SPOKEN language to make words. According to the National Institute for Literacy, Putting Reading First, Kindergarten Through Grade 3, “If children are to benefit from phonics instruction, they need phonemic awareness.” The document goes on to say, “The reasons are obvious: children who cannot hear and work with the phonemes of spoken words...

Go to the End and Count Back Three, if You See Consonant + LE


The syllable pattern in REVLOC is is a departure from the Vowel-Consontant-Vowel patterns. This one is Consonant+LE. It is the L in REVLOC. If you have not read the post on REVLOC, please read it and come back. When you have a word with a Consonant+LE at the end, count back three letters, then divide the word. Consontant + LE is ALWAYS at the end of the word. The C+LE endings are: bledlefleglekletlezleple They are pronounced as: ble = b’l (as in bubble)dle = d’l (as in idle)fle = f’l (as in ruffle)gle = g’l (as in giggle)kle = k’l (as in pickle)tle = t’l...

Breaking the Rules: Wild Old Words


I’ve written in the past about closed syllables and how if a syllable is “closed in” by consonants, then it will be a “closed syllable” and the vowel will be short. However, there are groups of words called Wild-Old Words that are “fossil” words left from Anglo Saxon times that do not follow the rules. These words are common but irregular. A student can learn that some common words ending in ld, st, nd, and lt have a single vowel with a long vowel sound. Examples combroll, troll, strollmold, told, sold, scold, old, bold, cold, fold, goldbolt, colt, dolt, jolt, Holt, molt,...

Spelling Is Easier with Generalization Rules: OI/OY, OU/OW, AU/AW


In keeping with the past two posts on spelling consonant sounds and spelling vowel sounds, I am going to cover oi/oy, ou/ow, au/aw generalizations; when to use each to make their sounds. I mentioned these generalizations in my last post in a “Miscellaneous” category. Here I am going more in depth on when to use each letter combination. It can look confusing at first glance to read what I am writing below. If you are not familiar, take your time looking at the rules. Then do the worksheets (or hand give them to a student). On all of these combinations,...

Spelling Vowel Sounds: What Music They Make


In my last post I talked about how to spell consonants. This week, we will cover how to spell vowels. It is important to note that when I say “spell” consonants and vowels I am talking about how letters can make more than one sound. For example, a makes a long and short sound, as in make and tack. But to spell the letter a, we can use many combinations to make the long a sound. For example, the long a sound can be spelled using the letters ai, as in rain, train, brain. The difference that comes out of this...