Without even thinking, we turn many singular words plural in our language. I might go to the grocery store, or the first store didn’t have what I needed, so I went to grocery stores. In many cases, like the word store, we just add an s and move on. But what if it’s not that simple? Orton Gillingham makes learning much easier by giving us rules. Luckily, there are the following plural rules to help out.
In dividing plural rules, we have five categories.
CH, SH, S, X, Z Plural Rule
CH, SH, S, X, Z Plural Rule This rule says that a noun ending in ch, sh, s, x, or z spells its plural by adding –es to the singular word.
Examples are watch to watches, bush to bushes, class to classes, tax to taxes, quiz to quizzes.
O Plural Rule
Almost all nouns ending in o will spell the plural word by adding an s to the end, including proper names.
Examples are radio to radios, patio to patios.
Some exceptions to this are a group of nouns that add –es to make the plural. These are the O Plural Rule words to remember.
- Embargo to embargoes
- Tomato to tomatoes
- Potato to potatoes
- Torpedo to torpedoes
- Echo to echoes
- Hero to heroes
- Veto to vetoes
A sentence to help with these exceptions is: An embargo of tomatoes, potatoes, and torpedoes echoes with heroes with vetoes.
F to V Plural Rule
Most words that end if f or fe become plural by adding an s (for example, cliffs). There are some words ending in f or fe that are made plural by changing the fe to v, and adding –es.
Examples are calf to calves, half to halves, leaf to leaves.
There are also exceptions to this rule – four words that have two plural forms.
- Scarf can be scarfs or scarves
- Dwarf can be dwarfs or dwarves
- Wharf can be wharfs or wharves
- Hoof can be hoofs or hooves
A sentence to help remember these is: The scarf on the dwarf was on the hoof in the wharf.
Y Plural Rule
Words ending in y, with a consonant before the y become plural by changing the y to i and adding es. Words ending in y with a vowel before the y become plural by adding s.
Examples of a consonant before the y are story to stories, mystery to mysteries, dairy to dairies
Examples of a vowel before the y are delay to delays, chimney to chimneys, valley to valleys.
Irregular Plural Rule
Irregular plurals spell their plurals without adding s or es.
Examples are child to children, foot to feet, mouse to mice, woman to women.
Also known as irregular plurals are words that have the same spelling no matter if they are singular or plural.
Examples are deer is deer plural, moose is moose plural, sheep is sheep plural.
Irregular plurals of letters, figures, signs and words
To form the plural of letters, signs, and words add an ‘s.
With numbers (10s), only use the ‘s if it makes the number clearer to the reader, otherwise, just add s (1970’s or 1970s).
Examples are # to #’s, ABC to ABC’s, and to and’s, 7 to 7s
Want to know more? Want worksheets? Find Plural Rules, and more information, in these resources.
OG for All Workbook Two: Workbook Two – Orton Gillingham for All (ogforall.com)
OG for All, Scope & Sequence Workbook 3: Scope and Sequence Book 3 – Orton Gillingham for All (ogforall.com)